The Digital Transformation of Soccer Clubs and Their Business Models

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Digital technologies are having a significant impact on the soccer industry, influencing the business models of soccer clubs and industry dynamics. For example, artificial intelligence and big data analytics are being used to improve talent scouting and management, while the internet of things, robotics, and virtual simulation are supporting tactics, training, and performance management. Gamification and augmented reality are also shaping key partnerships, and e-commerce is boosting revenues. Smart arenas are enhancing the consumer experience. The fast diffusion of digital technologies has increased business model complexity and has put firms in the position to assess the value of each technology for integration into their business models. This study maps how digital technologies are transforming each business model building block in the soccer industry and proposes a number of research questions for future research to enhance the current academic debate on the digital transformation of the soccer industry, and on the sports industry in general.